Dyslexia Program

  • Dyslexia Handbook


    Common Risk Factors Associated with Dyslexia:

    If the following behaviors are unexpected for an individual’s age, educational level, or cognitive abilities, they may be risk factors associated with dyslexia. A student with dyslexia usually exhibits several of these behaviors that persist over time and interfere with his/her learning. A family history of dyslexia may be present; in fact, recent studies reveal that the whole spectrum of reading disabilities is strongly determined by genetic predispositions (inherited aptitudes) (Olson, Keenan, Byrne, & Samuelsson, 2014).


    • Delay in learning to talk

    • Difficulty with rhyming

    • Difficulty pronouncing words (e.g., “pusgetti” for “spaghetti,” “mawn lower” for “lawn mower”)

    • Poor auditory memory for nursery rhymes and chants

    • Difficulty in adding new vocabulary words

    • Inability to recall the right word (word retrieval)

    • Trouble learning and naming letters and numbers and remembering the letters in his/ her name

    • A version to print (e.g., doesn’t enjoy following along if book is read aloud)

    Kindergarten and First Grade

    • Difficulty breaking words into smaller parts (syllables) (e.g., “baseball” can be pulled apart into “base” “ ball” or “napkin” can be pulled apart into “nap” “kin”)

    • Difficulty identifying and manipulating sounds in syllables (e.g., “man” sounded out as /m/ /ă/ /n/)

    • Difficulty remembering the names of letters and recalling their corresponding sounds

    • Difficulty decoding single words (reading single words in isolation)

    • Difficulty spelling words the way they sound (phonetically) or remembering letter sequences in very common words seen often in print ( e.g., “sed” for “said”)

    Second Grade and Third Grade

    Many of the previously described behaviors remain problematic along with the following:

    • Difficulty recognizing common sight words (e.g., “to,” “said,” “been”)

    • Difficulty decoding single words • Difficulty recalling the correct sounds for letters and letter patterns in reading

    • Difficulty connecting speech sounds with appropriate letter or letter combinations and omitting letters in words for spelling (e.g., “after” spelled “eftr”)

    • Difficulty reading fluently (e.g., slow, inaccurate, and/or without expression)

    • Difficulty decoding unfamiliar words in sentences using knowledge of phonics

    • Reliance on picture clues, story theme, or guessing at words

    • Difficulty with written expression


    For more information on London ISD's Dyslexia Program or Evaluations contact:

    Danielle Baen

    London ISD Diagnostician


    361-855-0092 ext 1301